THE SUCCESS OF A DIET CAN DEPEND ON OUR DNA
The incidence of diet-induced metabolic disease has exploded over the last half-century, despite public health policy efforts to improve universal dietary recommendations. Studies comparing population dietary patterns with health outcomes have historically provided the basis for recommendations of a healthy diet. However, evidence that population responses to the diet are reliable indicators is lacking. Also, get to know the ideal breakfast for kids in winter.
A study published in the journal Genetics on November 20, 2017, investigated how genetic differences influence health responses to several popular diets in mice, which are similar to humans in genetic composition and propensity to develop metabolic disease, but enable precise genetic and environmental control. Moreover, a low calorie diet can help you lose weight easily.
The researchers designed four human-comparable mouse diets that are representative of the most common diets. Through four strains of genetically distinct mice, they compared the impact of the American diet on metabolic health to three alternative diets, the Mediterranean diet , the Japanese diet and the ketogenic diet (a diet similar to that used by the Masai) . In addition, they studied metabolic and epigenetic alterations associated with diet response.
A UNIVERSAL DIET DOES NOT EXIST
The list of traits affected by genetics is growing. Our body responds to a particular diet. Indeed, research on animal models with different genes shows that one diet is not suitable for everyone, and what works for some may not be the best precept for others.
Dietary advice, whether from public health policy or from another organization, tends to be based on the theory that there will be a diet that helps everyone. But in the face of the obesity epidemic, it seems that the guidelines have not been effective.
Now, researchers think they know why. They used four different groups of animal models to examine how different diets affect health over a six-month period. They chose test diets to reflect those eaten by humans: a typical American diet (richer in fatty and refined carbohydrates, especially corn) and three others that got a more “healthy” publicity: the Mediterranean diet (with wheat extract and red wine), the Japanese diet (with rice and green tea extract ) and the ketogenic diet , or Atkins diet(high in fat and protein with very little carbohydrate). A fifth diet was that of the control group, which ate standard commercial food.
Although some so-called healthy diets worked well for most people, one of the four genetic types reacted very badly by eating the diet similar to the Japanese diet, for example. The diet has created an increase in fat in the liver and marks of liver damage. A similar thing happened with the Atkins diet: two genetic types reacted very well, and two others very badly.
In humans, the response to diets is usually quite broad. The researchers wanted to discover, in a controlled way, what the effect of genetics was. They measured the physical signs, particularly the evidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a set of signs and problems related to obesity , including high blood pressure and cholesterol , fatty liver and sugar levels in the body. blood. They also studied behavioral differences, such as exerciseand quantity of food.
OUR DNA WOULD BE JUST AS IMPORTANT AS WHAT WE EAT
The results showed that a diet that makes one individual healthy and slim could have the complete opposite effect on another. The goal in this study was to find the optimal diet. But what researchers are finding is that it depends a lot on the genetics of the individual and that there is not a diet that suits everyone.
Finally, the health effects of diets were highly dependent on the genetic background, demonstrating that individualized feeding strategies improve health . A personalized approach, consisting of precision dietetics and individualized dietary recommendations, can provide better health outcomes than the traditional “one-size-fits-all diet” approach.
To conclude, the future work of the research team will focus on determining the genes involved in the response to diets. The current goal of researchers is to develop a genetic test that could tell each person the best diet for their own genetic makeup. Also, researchers think there might be a geographical difference based on what your ancestors ate.